Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Effects Of Immigration On The Host Economy - 1502 Words

The aim of this literature review is to provide an overview of the various effects of immigration on the host economy. The consequences I will be focusing on are on employment, inflation, wage level, economic growth and the welfare system. I am also going to examine what effect the skill level of immigrants has on the economic development of the host country. Then we will concentrate on papers about the situation in particular countries. There is plenty of research available about that particular topic and I would like to start with one of the earliest papers I found. In 1975 Professor Julian L. Simon (Simon 1975) assessed the aggregate effects of immigration on the incomes of natives in the United States and he found out that immigrants constitute and â€Å"excellent investment†, worth, in 1975, somewhere between fifteen and twenty thousand U.S. dollars to natives. While conceding some negative effects on the citizen work force in the form of job replacement, Professor Simon argues that immigrants not only take jobs, they also create jobs indirectly with their spending. He believes that international immigration is on the whole a positive effect. While he admits that there is some increased competition with citizen unskilled workers, the injury to citizens is very low and immigration has a virtually unmitigated positive benefit in economic terms. Also Professor George Borjas (Borjas 1990) made compelling arguments for increasing immigration to the United States but at theShow MoreRelatedImmigration On The United States1302 Words   |  6 PagesImmigration Rights in the U.S. Immigration has occurred in the U.S. for for many years. Some say it’s the foundation of our country. America is the country where people leave their own country to live. People would leave due to mistreatment, hunger issues or job opportunities. America is known for starting over or accomplishing dreams, so immigrants travel over to follow those dreams. People emigrate from one country to another for a variety of complex reasons. Some are forced to move, due to conflictRead MoreThe Effects of Migration725 Words   |  3 Pagesevery day, but they’re knocking on doors that are not open.† Probably, the author is right because most of the migrants even do not know what awaits them in a new country. Before thinking about the effects of migration, people should draw a distinction between emigration and immigration. The immigration is beneficial, whereas the emigration is totally disadvantageous for a country. People from industrially backward regions do not value th eir current lifestyle and conditions, and they cannot resistRead MoreThe Positive and Negative Aspects of Job Migration943 Words   |  4 Pagesworld between April and June 2013(Immigration Statistics, April to June 2013).This essay seeks to evaluate the positive and negative impacts of labor migration. This research will begin by evaluating the economic effects of job migration it will then proceed to investigate the social effects. In the process it will be highlighted that the impacts of migration are balanced. Main body Economical effects Job migration has negative and positive impacts on economy. All countries take taxes from migrantsRead MoreReassessment of International Instruments in the Field of Migration1026 Words   |  5 Pagesnature of current migration flows with traditional institutional and legal systems of handling immigration, according to which each category of migrants received its clear and unambiguous definition. This concern has led to a reassessment of international instruments in the field of migration. Phenomenon of immigration Orderly international migration can have a positive impact on the countries of origin and host countries. Migration can also facilitate the transfer of skills and cultural enrichment. TheRead MoreThe Impact Of Immigration On The United States1577 Words   |  7 PagesBeing the only Canadian born in my family, integration and immigration were never a concern of mine. However, my older brothers and parents had to go through this entire process in the 90s. Back then it was much different than now. Integration and immigration in Canada was relatively easier than in countries such as Spain, which will be the focus of this essay. Immigration to Spain is quite new. In the 1990s, it became more common, and then over the years increased significantly. The drastic increaseRead MoreCauses and Effects of Immigration1521 Words   |  7 Pages Causes and Effects of Immigration Name : Omar Kareem ID : 20083112 Section : H Instructor: Miss. Nathalia Geha Enl 110 Outline Causes and effects of immigration Thesis: the immigration is a big social problem. People immigrate because they want to have job, to run from dangerous situation and to have better education. I_ causes of immigration A_ some people are forced to move due to a conflict or toRead MoreJd Wetherspoon976 Words   |  4 PagesUnder a staggering development of economy, many people immigrate to foreign country, such as USA, UK and Australia. Therefore, they promote development of economic of these countries, as well as bringing to negative effects. In this essay, I will discuss that how influence the economic of developed countries. For example, population of America will be twice in this century. Especially, the number of children increased sharply. So that need as twice as houses, cars, roads, prison, hospitals, schoolsRead MoreThe Effects Of Immigration On The United States Essay799 Words   |  4 Pages4. Current Situation In the past few years, a lot has been spoken and researched about immigration. The goods are moving in out of the countries more freely as globalization has taken its stand. Not only goods, but people also move about more freely than before. Effects of immigration Immigration can have some positive impacts as well as some negative ones. Both the hosts and originals are affected by it. The countries which are industrialized in Western Europe or the United states are usuallyRead MoreThe United States and Illegal Immigration Essay1086 Words   |  5 PagesIllegal immigration was an issue in the past and is a pressing problem in the present. The U.S. Government has been trying to find a resolution to this issue for years. The United States approved the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986, which allowed the American Government to punish American companies that consciously employed illegal immigrants (Nadadur 1037-1052). The United States’ Government Immigration Reform and Control Act has been unsuccessful in controlling illegal immigration. ItRead MoreThe Effects Of Immigration On The Labour Market1334 Words   |  6 PagesThe issue of immigration restrictions has been a widely discussed topic in New Zealand, where migrants account for approximately one-quarter of the total population (United Nations, 2015). Some argue that the government has the re sponsibility to protect native workers, property rights against inflation and taxpayers, thus, should restrict immigration. However, others believe that the immigration policy achieves its intended purpose and that the migrants, eventually, bring tremendous positive economic

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Is Cloning A Real Development - 1031 Words

It is in human nature to constantly learn and improve. Humans are daredevils and natural entrepreneurs in life. Testing limits, discovering things to help create new ideas and give hope to the human population, but some discoveries are out of mankind s hands. Cloning is starting to become a real development but issues such as later development issues, overpopulation and the idea of decreasing natural individuality keep it at a standstill. While Cloning is at a standstill there are things that make it an interesting research development. Cloning: the complete copy of an original piece. With all the downfalls of the new technology idea, some are blinded by the unique promises that could help the human race. With learning so much about the†¦show more content†¦There is life and saving with in the idea of cloning. Heads should not be turned just because of its unnatural creation, cloning is a an idea that is looked down upon, but so was electricity and other great inventions that have increased our knowledge of the world we know today. Cloning animals have already been a development, but each clone has had development problems. Most have a problem such as later development. Reproductive cloning is expensive and highly inefficient. â€Å"More than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring.†(â€Å"Cloning: an Issue Overview†p.2) More than 100 nuclear transfer procedures could be required to produce one viable clone. In addition to low success rates, cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders. Cloned animals that do survive tend to be much bigger at birth than their natural counterparts. â€Å"Cloned animals also experience many health complications, such as abnormally large organs, and so they often die early. For example, scientists euthanized Dolly when she was six years old (half her expected lifetime) because she suffered from progressive lung disease and severe arthritis†(Joseph Castro, p.1).Dol ly is a the first mammal ever cloned in history, with her shocking survival when she was born,

Tissue Culture Technique for Callus Induction Free Essays

string(29) " at the culture room of ABI\." Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. We will write a custom essay sample on Tissue Culture Technique for Callus Induction or any similar topic only for you Order Now 23, No. 1, 2007 * Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar – Pakistan. ** Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad – Pakistan. TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES FOR CALLUS INDUCTION IN RICE Hidayat Ullah*, Iltaf Ullah*, Sultan Akbar Jadoon* and Hamid Rashid** ABSTRACT Seeds of two rice varieties Basmati-370 and Basmati-385 were evaluated for invitro callus induction at Agricultural Biotechnology Institute in National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad during 2001-02, using M. S and N6 media supplemented with 2, 4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxi acetic acid) and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) at @ 2. 0, 2. 5 and 0. 1, 0. 5 mgl-1 respectively. Objective of our study is to know the actual procedure for seed sterilization and to provide a well-adopted technique for callus induction in these varieties by using M. S and N6 media along with different concentrations of growth hormones. Seeds were used as explant source and to avoid chance of contamination sodium hypochlorite and ethanol at the rate of 50% and 70% were used respectively. Best response toward callus induction were observed for Bas-385 on both MS and N6 media however N6 media was proved to be best. Calli obtained from Bas-385 were friable and vigorous as compare to Bas-370. Bas-370 respond moderately on MS and N6 media at various combinations of 2,4-D and BAP. Bas-370 on MS media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP @ 2. 0 and 0. 1 mgl-1 gave good performance towards callus induction. Over all results indicated that best callus were induced on MS and N6 when supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP @2. 0 and 0. 0 mgl-1 for variety Bas-385. INTRODUCTION In Pakistan rice is the second leading crop after wheat. In 2000-2001, the world annual production of rice was 598 million tones (FAO 2002). Asia is the largest producer of rice, with Bangladesh, China, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnams as the leading rice producing nations. In Pakistan rice covered an area of 2. 52 million ha, with the production of 5. 16 million tones in 1999-2000. It also play important role in our national economy. During 1999-2000 about 1. 92 million tones of rice was exported and earn about 465. 8 million US$. Rice is susceptible to a range of diseases and pests, which annually destroy about 55 percent of rice crops. The most common diseases are caused by he fungi sheath blight and rice blast, and the stalk borer is a common insect pest. Rice is composed of essential food components, therefore more than two billions people in the globe depend on rice for more than half of the proteins and calories they consume (Khan et al. 2000). Due to its increasing importance in nutrition and economy, it is now felt that new vari eties of rice, having good agronomic characters, should be evolved. Crop improvement through tissue culture techniques is easier and more often in use as compared to conventional plant breeding (Yamada, 1986). Somaclonal variations commonly ppear after tissue culture, which involve a callus stage (Larkin and Scow Croft 1981). Callus is undifferentiated mass of rapidly proliferating cells, can be obtained by culturing explants source (seed, node, bud, leaves, meristem and root tips etc) on nutrient medium containing specific growth regulators along with a standard recipe of chemicals. Rashid et al. (2000) studied that rice seeds have more potential for callogenesis as compared to node or tip. Successful callus induction from rice seed has been reported by several researchers (Gonalz 2000; Navraj et al. 1999; Marrassi 1996; Valdez et al. 1997; Xie et al. 995). But an improved method for callogenesis was reported by Rashid et al. 2000). The present study is based on tissue culture tech niques carried out in ABI laboratory for callus induction in rice varieties viz. Basmati-370 and Basmati-385. Two types of basal media M. S (Murashige and Skoog 1962) and N6 (Nitsch and Nitsch, 1969) supplemented with 2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) alone or in combination with different concentrations of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) were used for callus induction. Hidayat Ullah, et al. Tissue culture techniques for callus induction in rice†¦. 82 MATERIALS AND METHODS The research work for callus induction in rice was conducted at the tissue culture laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology Institute in National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, during 2001-02. The procedure of this research work has been divided in the following four main categories. Surface Sterilization of Rice Seeds Seeds of Basmati-370 and Basmati-385 were provided by rice programmed, Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (ABI), National Agricultural Research Center Islamabad, and it was taken as explant source for callus induction. Healthy and mature seeds were selected by hysical appearance and they were dehusked manually. Seeds were first washed with detergent and then rinsed three times with simple tap water. For surface sterilization of seeds Clorox (5. 25% sodium hypochlorite) and ethanol was applied. After the applications of Clorox and ethanol seeds were rinsed thrice with autoclaved distilled water. Finally the seeds were dried with autoclaved filter pape r, and they were shifted carefully to the culture room of Agricultural Biotechnology Institute. Basal Media Preparation M. S and N6 basal media were used for callus initiation. These media were prepared according to he ingredients (Table I). The exact amount of nutrients was dissolved in the distilled water. Two types of growth regulators 2,4-D alone or in combination with BAP was used for callus induction. 2,4-D @ 2. 0 and 2. 5 mg l-1 and BAP @ 0. 0, 0. 1, 0. 5 mg l-1 respectively was added in the media. Sucrose at the rate of 3% and agar at the rate of 0. 7% was also added in the media. PH of the media was adjusted at 5. 78-5. 80 with the help of PH-meter. M. S. and N6 media were poured into the test tubes, it was plugged properly and autoclaved at 20 lbs pressure for 15 minutes in the autoclave machine. Inoculation of Sterilized Seeds The most important step in tissue culture technique is the inoculation of seeds. This operation was performed in the laminar flow cabinet at the culture room of ABI. You read "Tissue Culture Technique for Callus Induction" in category "Essay examples" Before the operation surface sterilization of the laminar flow unit was carried by UV-light for two minutes. After that hands were disinfected with 75% ethanol to prevent chance of contamination. Dried seeds were then inoculated into test tubes under aseptic condition in laminar flow unit. To minimize chance of infection the instruments were dipped in disinfectant after every operation. Growth Chamber Inoculated cultures were incubated at 25 ±3? C under the influence of 2000-lux light intensity for 16 hours photoperiod. Callus induction of rice seeds were observed after 21- days. The data for callus induction frequency were recorded for two rice varieties on two different media with different concentrations of growth regulators. Table I Composition of MS and N6 media Macronutrients KNO3 1900 2830 NH4NO3 1650 0 CaCl2. 2H2O 440 166 MgSO4 370 90. 37 KH2PO4 170 400 (NH4)2 SO4 — 463 Micronutrients MnSO4. H2O 16. 9 3. 33 H3BO3 6. 2 1. 6 KI 0. 83 0. 80 ZnSO4. 4H2O 8. 6 — ZnSO4. 7H2O — 1. 5 NaMoO4. 2H2O 0. 5 — CuSO4. 5H2O 0. 025 — CoCl2. 6H2O 0. 025 — Iron source FeSO4. 7H2O 27. 85 27. 85 NaEDTA 37. 25 37. 25 Vitamins Myoinositol 100 — Nicotinic Acid 0. 5 0. 5 Pyridoxine HCl 0. 5 0. 5 Thiamine HCl 0. 1 1. 0 Glycine 2. 0 — Sucrose 30g 30g Agar 7g 7g RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results obtained from tissue culture techniques of Bas-370 an d Bas-385 performed in ABI laboratory and repeated three times from 10th February to Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. 23, No. 1, 2007 83 October 2001. Chance of contamination was much low when both the varieties were treated with 50% Clorox and 70% ethanol. Oono (1981) also used eeds as explants source for rice callus induction. The main objective of our study is to know the actual procedure for seed sterilization and callogenesis in these cultivars. The potential of both varieties for callus induction was observed significantly different on M. S and N6 media at different concentrations of growth regulators. It is noteworthy that N6 and M. S media, which proved to be optimum for the growth of callus, were unable to support cell growth in liquid media. Callus induced from both the varieties were different at various level of 2,4-D and BAP. Maximum callus formation (62. 5%) was recorded or Bas-385, followed by Bas-370 (55. 55%) when seeds were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D@2. 0 m gl-1 and 2mgl-1 2,4-D+0. 1mgl-1 BAP respectively (Table II and IV). Lowest callus of 41. 66 % was observed each for Bas-370 and Bas-385 when MS medium is supplemented with 2. 5 and 0. 5 mgl-1 of 2,4-D and BAP respectively. It is cleared that potential of Bas-385 towards callogenesis was higher than Bas-370. Averaged across MS media callus induction frequency was 48. 14 % for BAS-370 vs 53. 22 % for BAS-385 (Fig 2). This is equivalent to the net reduction of 5. 08 % for BAS-370. Growth regulator 2,4-D at he rate of 2mgl-1 was suggested and proved to be best for callus induction in both the varieties. Using N6 media callus induction frequency ranged from 20. 83 to 68. 05% for both the varieties. When 2,4-D@2mgl-1 was supplemented with N6 media, produced highest and good quality callus from Bas-385 (68. 05%) and minimum (20. 83%) from Bas-370 (Table III and IV). This result indicated positive correlation between 2,4-D and Bas-385 and negative for Bas-370. Average across N6 media callus induction frequency was 23. 6 % for Bas-370 vs 60. 64 % for Bas-385 (Fig. 3). This is equivalent to the net reduction of 7. 2 % for BAS- 370. Calli obtained from both the varieties were friable, granular, and yellow in color. So it was proved that N6 media is better for callus induction of rice as compared to M. S medium. Overall result of BAS-385 was best on various concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP on both, MS and N6 media. Callus form Bas-385 was healthy and more fleshy as compare to Bas-370 (Figure 1). The active division of cells was more prominent in the callus of Bas-385, that’s why it looks bulky. Secondly Bas-385 had more capacity for producing callus, especially when N6 media supplemented with 2,4- D@2mgl-1. Agronomic features of Bas-385 are also better than Bas-370 because it is developed through hybridization between Bas-370 and TN-1. Callus induction must be dependent on the genetic potentials of the variety and secondly the combination of hormones at different concentration. Callus induction is the best way to create somaclonal variations in crop plants. Variations are the basis for improvement and some time this variation is heritable. Oono (1981) cultured seed explants of rice varieties and observed variation for certain agronomic characters that are also heritable. Once cultured techniques were stablished in rice, it become possible to apply them for callus regeneration and transformation. (b) Calli obtained from Bas-385 (a) Calli Obtained form Bas-370 Hidayat Ullah, et al. Tissue culture techniques for callus induction in rice†¦. 84 Table II Percentage callus induction frequency and contamination in Bas-370 on M. S Medium Treatments Sterilizing agents Clorox time/Ethano l ti me (min) Hormone in mg L-1 # Of inoculated test tubes % Contamination % Callus induction frequency % Clorox % Ethanol 2,4-D BAP 1 50 70 20/1. 0 2. 0 0. 0 72 58. 33% 20. 83% 2 50 70 20/2. 0 2. 0 0. 1 72 73. 61% 22. 22% 50 70 20/4. 0 2. 5 0. 5 72 52. 77% 27. 77% Table III Percentage callus induction frequency and contamination in Bas-370 on N6 Medium. Treatments Sterilizing agents Clorox time/Ethano l time (min) Hormone used in mg L-1 # Of inoculated test tubes % Contami nation % Callus induction frequency % Clorox % Ethanol 2,4-D BAP % Clorox 1 50 70 20/1. 0 2. 0 0. 0 72 1 50 2 50 70 20/2. 0 2. 0 0. 1 72 2 50 3 50 70 20/4. 0 2. 5 0. 5 72 3 50 Table IV Percentage callus induction frequency and contamination in Bas-385 on M. S Medium. Treatments Sterilizing agents Clorox /Ethanol time (min) Hormone used in mg L-1 Of inoculated test tubes % Contami nation % Callus induction % Clorox % Ethanol 2,4-D BAP % Clorox 1 50 70 20/1. 0 2. 0 0. 0 72 1 50 2 50 70 20/2. 0 2. 0 0. 1 72 2 50 3 50 70 20/4. 0 2. 5 0. 5 72 3 50 Table V. Percentage callus induction frequency and contamination in Bas-385 on N6 Medium Treatments Sterilizing agents Clorox/Etha nol time (min) Hormone used in mg L-1 # Of inoculated test tubes % Contami nation % Callus induction frequency % Clorox % Ethanol 2,4-D BAP % Clorox 1 50 70 20/1. 0 2. 0 0. 0 72 1 50 2 50 70 20/2. 0 2. 0 0. 1 72 2 50 3 50 70 20/4. 0 2. 5 0. 5 72 3 50 Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2007 85 20. 83 62. 5 22. 22 55. 5 27. 77 41. 66 0 20 40 60 80 Bas-370 Bas-385 Varieties Callus induction freq (%) 2,4-DBAP@2. 00. 0 2,4-DBAP@2. 00. 1 2,4-DBAP@2. 50. 5 47. 22 68. 05 55. 55 61. 11 41. 66 52. 77 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Bas-370 Bas-385 Varieties Callus induction freq (%) 2,4-DBAP@2. 00. 0 2,4-DBAP@2. 00. 1 2,4-DBAP@2. 50. 5 Fig. 2. Callus induction frequency (%) of Bas-370 and Bas-385 on M. S media at different level of 2,4-D and BAP. Fig. 3. Callus induction frequency (%) of Bas-370 and Bas-385 on N6 media at different level of 2,4-D and BAP. Hidayat Ullah, et al. Tissue culture techniques for callus induction in rice†¦. 86 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Infections of the callus is main problem in tissue culture technique so we should adopt the following precautions. 1. We should sterilize the seeds in 50% hypochlorite solution for 20 minutes and all the apparatus like flasks, petri plates, blades and forceps etc. should be disinfectant with 70% ethanol. Media should be prepared accurately with respect to concentrations and PH of the media must be maintained properly. Exact amount of growth hormones must be added. 2. Seeds of Bas-370 on MS media with combination 2. and 0. 1mgl-1 should be used to get maximum callus, while hormonal combination 2,4-D and BAP @2. 0 and 0. 0 mg l-1 should be used for better callus induction of Bas-385 on N6 media. Bas-385 is an improved version of Bas-370 because it is developed through hybridization between Bas-370 and TN-1. That’s why it is more responsive towards callus as will as high doses of ferti lizers. Over all results indicated that Bas- 385 having more potentials and suitable for further genetic studies. REFERENCES FAO. 2002 Food Outlook Bullet. No: 1,FAO, Rome. Gonalz, M. C. 2000. Effects of different growth egulators on in vitro culture of rice cultivors. Tropicales. 21(1): 27-28. Khan, J. A. , F. F. Jamil and M. A. Gill. 2000. Screnning of rice varieties against bakanae and bacterial leaf blight. Pak. J. Phytopath. 12(1): 6-11. Larkin, P. J. and W. R. Scowcraft. 1981. Somaclonal variation a novel source of variability from cell cultures of plant improvement. Theor. Appld. Genet. 60:197-214. Marasi, M. A. , O. A. Bovo, A. Socchi and L. A. Mrongiski. 1996. Cytokining in the callus induction medium for plant regeneration of rice. Phyton Int, J. Exp. Bot. 59(1-2): 155-160. Murashige, T. and F. Skoog. 1962. Arevised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497. Navraj, K. , M. S. Gill, G. Raman, T. S. Bharaj, S. S. Gosal, N. Kaur and R. Gill. 1999. Factors enhancing somatic embryogenesis and high frequency plant regeneration in rice. Crop Improv. 26(1): 23-27. Nitsch, J. P. and C. Nitsch. 1969. Haploid plants from pollen grains. Sci. 163: 85-87. Oono, K. 1981. In vitro methods applied to rice in plant tissue culture. T. Athorpe, ed. Acad. Press, New York. pp. 273-298. Rashid, H. , A. Toriyama, K. Qurashi, Hinta and K. A. Malik. 2000. An improved method for hoot regeneration from calli of Indica rice. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 3 (12): 2229-2231. Valdez, M. , M. Monoz, J. R. Vega and A. M. Espinoza. 1997. Plant regeneration of Indica rice from mature embryo derived calli. Revistade Biologia Tropical. 44(3): 13-21. Xie, J. H. , M. W. Gao, Q. H. Cai, X. Y. Chens, Y. W. Shen and Z. Q. Liang. 1995 Optimized growth regulators combination in Japonica rice. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 42(3): 245-250. Yamada, Y. , T. Q. Yang and D. T. Tang. 1986. Plant regeneration from protoplast derived callus of rice (Oryza sativa L. ). Plant Cell Reports. 4: 85-88 How to cite Tissue Culture Technique for Callus Induction, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The planets Essay Example For Students

The planets Essay The Planets and the Solar System Planets 2 A planet is a celestial body that revolves around a central star and does not shine by its own light (Grolier, 1992). The only planetary system that is known to man is our solar system. It is made up of nine planets which range in size and make-up. The nine major planets in our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. There are also many other minor planets which are also in our solar system, but they are unimportant compared to the nine major planets. In this paper I will discuss the planets and how they are each unique. Mercury which is the planet that is closest to the sun is the first planet I will discuss. We will write a custom essay on The planets specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Mercury is the smallest of the inner planets. It is speculated that the heat from the sun made it impossible for the gases present to become part of the planetary formation. The surface of Mercury is extremely hot. It is approximately 470 degrees celsius on the surface and is thought to be even hotter at the two hot spots. These hot spots are on opposite ends of the equator. It is the heat of the surface that makes it impossible for Mercury to have any type of atmosphere. Mercury orbits the sun once every 88 days and has a true rotation period of 58.6 days. It is the closest planet to the sun and therefore orbits faster than any other planet (Thompson/Turk, 542, 1993). It is said that Mercury rotates three times for every two trips around the sun, so that during Planets 3 every alternate perihelon passage the same face points directly at the sun. Geologically, the most remarkable features of Mercury are compressional cliffs or faults, just the sort of wrinkles that might form in the crust if the interior of the planet shrank slightly (Morrison, 74, 1993). It is speculated that it was the solidification of Mercurys metallic core that caused this global shrinkage. Mercury is also . . . enriched in metal or depleted of rock (Morrison, 74, 1993). It is also believed that some of the inner core of Mercury is still in a fluid state. Scientists also believe that Mercurys surface is made partially of silicate rock. The best way to describe Mercury is, . . . small, heavily cratered and airless (Morrison, 71, 1993). Venus is the second closest planet to the sun and is said to . . . most closely resemble Earth in size, density, and distance from the sun (Thompson/Turk, 542, 1993). Venus is known to most scientists as the sister planet to the Earth. It is called this because it closely resembles the Earths mass, density and diameter. The only thing different is that Venus is shrouded in thick clouds that completely hide the surface of the planet (Grolier, 1992). The surface temperature is also much warmer than that of Earth. Venus completes one revolution around the sun in 224.7 days. This makes the Venusian day equal to 117 earth days. It is thought that this slow rotation may be the reason why Venus has no magnetic field. Planets 4 The atmosphere of Venus made up of 98% carbon dioxide and 2% Nitrogen. This atmosphere also has the presence of helium, neon and argon. This is yet another thing which makes Venus different from Earth. The surface of Venus is quite a bit like that of the Earth. The surface has volcanoes and smooth plains. Much of the volcanic activity on Venus takes the form of Basaltic eruptions that inundate large ares, much as the mare volcanism flooded the impacted basins on the near side of the moon (Morrison, 93, 1993). .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .postImageUrl , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:hover , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:visited , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:active { border:0!important; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:active , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Minds Are Open Only When Hearts Are Open Essay Paper One thing that differs from Earth is that there is no water liquid on the Venusian surface. Some of the scientific data that follows was taken out of Cattermoles book. The mean distance from the sun is 108.20 Km. The equatorial diameter is 12,012 Km and the equatorial rotation is 243 days. Finally the mass of Venus is 4.87*10^24 (Cattermole, 63, 1993). Venus, although different than Earth, is still our sister planet. Mars is the fourth furthest away from the sun and is recognized by its reddish color. Mars is also very much like the Earth. More than any other planet in the solar system, Mars has characteristics that make it an Earth-like world (Grolier, 1992). One thing that is very similar to Earth is the rotation period. Mars rotation period is only thirty seven minutes longer than the Earths. This would explain why Mars has significant seasonal changes just as Earth does. It is believed that the Planets 5 difference between winter and summer on Mars is even greater than on Earth. Mars is extremely hard to understand due to the effect of blurring that is caused by the two atmospheres of Mars. Scientists do know, however, that Mars is relatively small and that changes take place in the surface features when the seasons change. It is also known that dust storms are prevalent and leaves the surface of Mars covered by a red haze. Mars has a very thin atmosphere which is composed of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, water vapor and oxygen. Mars also has no magnetic field. Because the atmosphere of mars is so thin, wind velocities up to several hundred Km per hour are required to raise the dust particles during a dust storm, and these fast- moving particles erode structures with a sand-blasting effect (Grolier, 1992). Therefore, the surface is basically plain-like and covered with large craters. There are also some areas where the rock is jumbled. The poles of Mars are iced over and the temperature is about 160 170 degrees K. Mars also has its share of volcanoes. Most of these volcanoes are shield volcanoes. The surface is littered with winding channels that resemble river channels that have dried up over time. Scientists believe that water once existed and caused the formation of these channels. It is said that, Mars remains the best candidate for life in the solar system outside of the Earth, and that is what makes Mars so interesting to scientists. Jupiter is the fifth planet and is the most massive of all Planets 6 the planets in this solar system. Its mass represents more than two-thirds of the total mass of all the planets, or 318 times the mass of the Earth. Jupiters density is quite low at 1. 3 g/cubic cm. The atmosphere of Jupiter contains water, ammonia, methane and carbon. It is thought by scientists that there are three cloud layers. The wind activity on Jupiter is quite fierce and moves in jet streams parallel to the equator. The weather on Jupiter is still very hard for scientists to understand. There is not enough information to truly understand how the weather is on this planet. Jupiter is most known by the normal citizen by the rings it has. These rings are very diffuse. The ring particles must generally be about as big as the wavelength of light, that is, only a few microns (Grolier, 1992). That is why these rings are faint or diffuse. The rings are what Jupiter is known for. Saturn is a planet which is also known for its rings and when viewed has a yellow or grayish color. .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .postImageUrl , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:hover , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:visited , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:active { border:0!important; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:active , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Times Have Changed Essay The color is from the gaseous atmosphere and the dust particles in that atmosphere. The atmosphere is mostly a clear hydrogen-helium atmosphere. There are also traces of methane, phosphine, ethane, and acetylene. This atmosphere is much different than that of the Earths. Saturn orbits the sun with a period of 29.4577 tropical years. It is 1.427 billion Km away from the sun and is therefore a cold planet. It has an equatorial diameter of 120,660 Km which Planets 7 makes it the second largest planet in our solar system. The next planet is Uranus. The main problem scientists have with Uranus is that, the lack of visible surface features means that it is difficult to measure the rotation period of Uranus (Hunt/Moore, 388, 1983). Uranus has an equatorial diameter of 51,000 Km which is almost four times as much as Earth. The atmosphere is mostly methane gas and therefore the planet has a red tint or a blueish green color. Uranus also has rings but unlike Saturn these rings have almost no small particles. Scientists are not as concerned with this planet. Neptune is the last of the gaseous planets in our solar system. Its atmosphere is much like Uranuss because it is mostly helium and hydrogen. It also contains methane. Neptune has a diameter of 49,500 Km and a mass 17.22 times that of the Earth. It has an average density of 1.67 /cm^3 (Grolier, 1992). Neptune also has rings like its other gaseous partners, but they are very faint. Not a great deal is known about Neptune. It is widely studied by scientists and that makes it an important planet. The final planet, which is also the smallest, and the furthest away from the sun is Pluto. This planet is very hard to see therefore not a lot is known about its physical characteristics. Scientists do know that it has a thin methane atmosphere. Little is known about this planet because it is so far away from the Earth and the sun. Scientists are always learning new things and more data will arise in the future. Planets 8 As one can see the planets of most importance are the ones closest to the sun and Earth. Little is known about the far off planets therefore it is hard to give them full recognition. Much is known about Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The other three planets are not as well known as these six are. Whether more planetary systems exist doesnt really matter. There are still plenty of things we dont understand about our own solar system. Scientists will have their work cut out for them in the future. Each and every planet has distinct differences and that helps show us how truly great God is. The planets will never fully be understood and will always be a great topic of discussion. Bibliography:Planets 9 Works Sited Cattermole, P. (1995). Earth and Other Planets. New York: Oxford University Press. Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc. (1992). Hunt, G. Moore, P. (1983). Atlas of the Solar System. Chicago: Rand Mc Nally Company. Morrison, D. (1993). Exploring Planetary Worlds. New York: Scientific American Library. Thompson, G. Turk, J. (1993). Earth Science and the Environment. New York: Saunders College Publishing Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Australia and the Depression essays

Australia and the Depression essays The 1920s was a time of great prosperity for Australia. Entertainment popularity had increased with musical theatre, opera and stage comedies drawing large audiences. Transport boomed with increasing numbers in car owners and the introduction of commercial aviation in the early 1920s. The Australian Government borrowed heavily from overseas for investments during this opulent period. By the late 1920s there was a significant decline in the volume of international trade . The American stock market crash in October 1929 accelerated a decline in prices for farm commodities in Australia. Due to both international as well as internal factors, Australia was now drawn into the depression along with the rest of the world. As a result of this, the economy suffered greatly and Australia could not pay back the millions of dollars worth of loans borrowed during the 1920s boom. Effects of the depression would lead to the unemployed and unskilled in society carrying the strain of the depression. S ocial divisions would widen as the depression took a greater toll on the working class. Australia borrowed heavily from overseas during World War I in order to finance the war effort. They owed large sums of money through investments and loans. The Bruce Page Government, headed by Prime Minister Bruce, brought in the policy of Men, money, markets to attempt to solve the economic problems that faced the world. The idea was to increase Australias population and bring investment to the country. In order to do so, immigration schemes were introduced. Australia provided assisted migration to immigrants as an incentive for them to come to Australia. Many migrants that came to Australia to increase the workforce did not know how to farm. Australia borrowed money from Britain to pay interest loans from World War I, fund public works and development projects and to pay pensions. Borrowing the money from England meant that export prices decreas...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Biography of Augusta Savage, Sculptor and Educator

Biography of Augusta Savage, Sculptor and Educator Augusta Savage, an African American sculptor, struggled to succeed as a sculptor despite barriers of race and sex. She is known for her sculptures of  W.E.B. DuBois,  Frederick Douglass,  Marcus Garvey; Gamin, and others. She is considered part of the  Harlem Renaissance arts and culture revival. Early Life Augusta Christine Fells Savage  lived from February 29, 1892, to March 26, 1962. She was born Augusta Fells in Green Cove Springs, Florida to Edward Fells and Cornelia (Murphy) Fells. She was the seventh of fourteen children. As a young child, she made figures out of clay, despite religious objections of her father, a Methodist minister. When she began school in West Palm Beach, a teacher responded to her clear talent by engaging her in teaching classes in clay modeling. At college, she earned money selling animal figures at a county fair. Marriages She married John T. Moore in 1907, and their daughter, Irene Connie Moore, was born the next year, shortly before John died.  She married James Savage in 1915, keeping his name even after their 1920s divorce and her remarriage to Robert L. Poston in 1923 (Poston died in 1924). Sculpting Career In 1919 she won an award for her booth at the county fair in Palm Beach. The fairs superintendent encouraged her to go to New York to study art, and she was able to enroll at Cooper Union, a college without tuition, in 1921. When she lost the caretaking job that covered her other expenses, the school sponsored her. A librarian found out about her financial problems, and arranged for her to sculpt a bust of African American leader, W.E.B. DuBois, for the 135th St. branch of the New York Public Library. Commissions continued, including one for a bust of Marcus Garvey. During the Harlem Renaissance, Augusta Savage enjoyed growing success, though a 1923 rejection for a summer of study in Paris because of her race inspired her to get involved in politics as well as art. In 1925, W.E.B. DuBois helped her get a scholarship to study in Italy, but she was unable to fund her additional expenses. Her piece Gamin brought attention, resulting in a scholarship from the Julius Rosenwald Fund, and this time she was able to raise money from other supporters, and in 1930 and 1931 she studied in Europe. Savage sculpted busts of Frederick Douglass, James Weldon Johnson, W. C. Handy, and others. Succeeding in spite of the Depression, Augusta Savage began to spend more time teaching than sculpting. She became the first director of the Harlem Community Art Center in 1937 and worked with the Works Progress Administration (WPA). She opened a gallery in 1939, and won a commission for the 1939 New York Worlds Fair, basing her sculptures on James Weldon Johnsons Lift Every Voice and Sing. The pieces were destroyed after the Fair, but some photos remain. Education Overview Florida State Normal School (now Florida A M University)Cooper Union (1921-24)with sculptor Hermon MacNeil, ParisAcademie de la Chaumiere, and with Charles Despiau, 1930-31 Retirement Augusta Savage retired to upstate New York and farm life in 1940, where she lived until shortly before her death when she moved back to New York to live with her daughter Irene.​

Friday, February 14, 2020

Quiz Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 6

Quiz - Essay Example Dr. Strangelove is one of the most satirical artistic works in history. The film was developed at a time when the entire country was terrified about the Soviet Union, yet it was developed with the approach of the issue by the use of humor instead of fear. Kubrick started the film as a drama but later found the whole situation so ridiculous that he had to laugh. The â€Å"big question† to be considered in this question is how human beings govern themselves (Landsburg 6). Governance is based on the fight for military and economic superiority by states that seek to rule others. This is depicted in the struggle by forces such as the USSR, Russia, and the United States in the film. Robert Oppenheimer is involved in the Manhattan Project that led to the development of the first atomic weapon. Oppenheimer believes that the atomic weapon came to make some states successful by improving their military superiority while other states would be affected by losing their citizens through deaths. This is the reason for his reference to Bhagavad Gita’s quote on the aspect of the destroyer of the worlds. The notion relates to Oppenheimer’s research in nuclear physics because it depicts the atomic bomb as a weapon that will destroy the world if not properly handled. The corset was so popular in the Victorian era because many women perceived it as a medical necessity. Women were believed to be fragile and always needed assistance in order to hold up. Even young girls needed to be laced up because of the weak nature associated with the female body. During the Victorian period, women were perceived as weak, and the corset was the most medically fit garment for them. Based on the â€Å"big question† on human beings, the corset was a violation of human rights. Based on the social construction, the society defines individuals. The society makes people perceive