Saturday, August 22, 2020

Candy Debut Albums and Joe free essay sample

The young lady at the station, the young lady with the grin, the minutes compulsion to remain for some time. This book was a pleasant book. It could have finished somewhat better. Joe had the right to be with Candy after all that he had experienced for her. Joe merited better, and he TLD get it. That is the main awful part about this book, yet generally speaking amazing book. This book was a pleasant book. It could have finished somewhat better. Joe had the right to be with Candy after all that he had experienced for her. Joe merited better, and he TLD get It. That is the main awful part about this book, however generally speaking magnificent book. My book was on Candy.A youthful adolescent young lady and kid who experienced passionate feelings for. Which happens constantly kid meets young lady the two of them fall for each other, yet who realized It would have happen Like this. Candy was a multi year old young lady who met a multi year old kid name Joe deck. They met at a train station In downtown London. Joe was lost In the train station when candy stood out enough to be noticed. Candy was attempting to inquire as to whether he required assistance discovering his direction at the same time, Joe was so lost in her excellence he didnt answer her he just gazed. Which sort of drove Candy away. She was complimented, however didnt need things to turn out to be progressively unbalanced. Joe had made up for lost time to Candy at the McDonalds and got her lunch.Candy and Joe were talking when out of nowhere Candys face went cold. The individual she dreaded the most had quite recently strolled into McDonalds, Gigs. Gigs was Candys pimp. Candy was a multi year old whore. Obviously, Joe, didnt know, well in any event not yet. After Gigs frightened the wreckage out of Candy and Joe, Joe left Candy and returned home. Joe was stuck on Candy. Unexplainable adoration must be a genuine thing on the grounds that Joe was enamored. Joe was still in stun about what had occurred. The manner in which Candy went cold like that, the manner in which she acted with Gigs, she didnt look at him without flinching, held her head down the entire time.Joe knew there was more to it, the Just couldnt press himself to accept that Candy was a whore and that Gigs was her pimp. It was excessively incredible to him, to me too in light of the fact that there are adolescents everywhere throughout the world getting drove into sex dealing. Joe was trapped, so stuck he composed a melody about her and played it with his band. Joe was in a band called The Skates. Joe was reluctant about calling Candy. He thought imagine a scenario in which Gigs replied, what might he say, so he held up an entire week to call her. Joe had held on to call Candy, he was anxious, yet he at long last called her. Joe and Candy had made an arrangement to go to the zoo one week from now so they could talk.They wanted to meet at the front door. They had went to the bistro. At the bistro Candy had hauled something out of her tote and excused herself to the washroom, said she would be a moment. Joe barely cared about It until she came out the washroom with something new about her. She had another look, her eyes were widened, and she was quiet. Candy was additionally a heroin someone who is addicted, she had been since the time Gigs came and destroyed her life. Poor Joe getting sucked up Into this young ladies mess. It wasnt his flaw however It was cherishes issue, you cannot help how you become hopelessly enamored with. After the zoo Joe was smelling from ear to ear.While playing his guitar and threw his melody about Candy, his sister Gina had strolled in. Gina was 5 years more seasoned than Joe which implied she was 20. Gina had a sweetheart name, Mike. Mike was a major dark person. Joe and Gina reminds every others business. Much the same as my sibling Gina needed to realize what candy's identity was. Joe felt awkward about disclosing to Gina who Candy was particularly a direct result of Candy circumstance her being a whore and a heroin fiend, yet he revealed to her beginning and end. In the event that it were me nothing would have been stated, that would have kicked the bucket as a mystery with me. The following occasion is the place everything gets great in the book.Joe has a gig with his band at a bar in downtown London. Everybody he thinks about will be there Candy, Gina, and Mike. It was during the last melody the band was playing that night, the tune Joe had expounded on Candy, the band concurred that Joe could play it for the last tune. Everything was going extraordinary till Gigs strolled in. Gigs implied inconvenience like consistently. Gigs had gone to the bar searching for Candy. Gigs medicate Candy out of the bar. Mike, Gins beau seen the fight occurring and attempted to stop it. Mike didnt succeed, Gigs group almost beat Mike half to death.Meanwhile Joe is still in front of an audience completing the Eng, he didnt notice whatever occur. At the point when he at last discovers her back at her condo half alive, he attempts to support her, yet during his endeavors, Gigs came in and attempts to execute Joe. At long last, Gigs doesnt succeed. Candy gets up and crushes Gigs in the head with a table light. Her and Joe get away and go to this cabin Joeys family has saved. Then, while Joe and Candy are at the cabin. Gigs awakens and discovers data about him, for example, his name, where he lives, everything. Gigs winds up taking Gina. Gigs calls Joe after he takes Gina and attempts to offer him a dealCandy for Gina. Presently Joe is stuck in a tight spot. The affection for his life or his sister. He is terrified and sad, so he calls Mike and discloses to him everything. Mike comes to help Joe and Candy, however Candy as of now has her a mystery plan. She intends to slaughter Gigs when he gets to the bungalow, and that is actually what she does. Candy wounded Gigs in the throat. You would imagine that everything is reasonable, everyone got what they merited. No, Candy wound up getting captured and being sent to a psychological organization. Joe is taboo to see her once more. He has lost the young lady he had always wanted.

Thursday, July 16, 2020

Abraham Maslows Life and Legacy

Abraham Maslows Life and Legacy More in Psychology History and Biographies Psychotherapy Basics Student Resources Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming In This Article Table of Contents Expand Best Known For Maslow's Early Life Career and Theories Contributions Selected Publications Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist perhaps best known as one of the founders of humanistic psychology and for his famous hierarchy of needs. Maslow felt that Freuds psychoanalytic theory and Skinners behavioral theory were too focused on the negative or pathological aspects of existence and neglected all of the potential and creativity that human beings possess. Maslows hierarchy of needs suggested that people have a number of needs, and as these needs are met they are able to go on to pursue other needs. The needs at the base of his hierarchy are more basic in nature, gradually moving up into more social, emotional and self-actualizing needs as one moves up the hierarchy. The story of the human race is the story of men and women selling themselves short. â€" Abraham Maslow Best Known For Hierarchy of NeedsFounder of Humanistic Psychology Maslows Early Life Abraham Maslow was born on April 1, 1908, in Brooklyn, New York, where he grew up the first of seven children born to his Jewish parents who emigrated from Russia. Maslow later described his early childhood as unhappy and lonely, and he spent much of his time in the library immersed in books. Eventually, Maslow went on to study law at City College of New York (CCNY) and married his first cousin Bertha Goodman. He later switched to the University of Wisconsin where he developed an interested in psychology and found a mentor in psychologist Harry Harlow who served as his doctoral advisor. Maslow earned all three of his degrees in psychology from the University of Wisconsin: a bachelors degree in 1930, a masters degree in 1931 and a doctorate in 1934. Career and Humanistic Theories Abraham Maslow began teaching at Brooklyn College in 1937 and continued to work as a member of the schools faculty until 1951. During this time, he was heavily influenced by Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer and anthropologist Ruth Benedict. Maslow believed that they were such exceptional people that he began to analyze and take notes on their behavior. This analysis served as the basis for his theories and research on human potential. During the 1950s, Maslow became one of the founders and driving forces behind the school of thought known as humanistic psychology. His theories including the hierarchy of needs, self-actualization and peak experiences became fundamental subjects in the humanist movement. The process of self-actualization played a critical role in Maslows theory. He defined this tendency as the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialities, etc. In other words, people are constantly in the process of striving to reach their full potential. Self-actualization is not an endpoint or a destination. It is an ongoing process in which people continue to stretch themselves and achieve new heights of well-being, creativity, and fulfillment. Maslow believed that self-actualizing people possess a number of key characteristics. Some of these include self-acceptance, spontaneity, independence and the ability to have peak experiences. Contributions to Psychology At a time when most psychologists focused aspects of human nature that were considered abnormal, Abraham Maslow shifted focus to look at the positive sides of mental health. His interest in human potential, seeking peak experiences and improving mental health by seeking personal growth had a lasting influence on psychology. While Maslow’s work fell out of favor with many academic psychologists and some suggest his hierarchy might be due for an update, his theories are enjoying a resurgence due to the rising interest in positive psychology. Maslow died in California on June 8, 1970, due to a heart attack. Selected Publications Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and Personality. NY: Harper.Maslow, A. (1962). Toward a Psychology of Being. NY: Van Nostrand.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Effects Of Immigration On The Host Economy - 1502 Words

The aim of this literature review is to provide an overview of the various effects of immigration on the host economy. The consequences I will be focusing on are on employment, inflation, wage level, economic growth and the welfare system. I am also going to examine what effect the skill level of immigrants has on the economic development of the host country. Then we will concentrate on papers about the situation in particular countries. There is plenty of research available about that particular topic and I would like to start with one of the earliest papers I found. In 1975 Professor Julian L. Simon (Simon 1975) assessed the aggregate effects of immigration on the incomes of natives in the United States and he found out that immigrants constitute and â€Å"excellent investment†, worth, in 1975, somewhere between fifteen and twenty thousand U.S. dollars to natives. While conceding some negative effects on the citizen work force in the form of job replacement, Professor Simon argues that immigrants not only take jobs, they also create jobs indirectly with their spending. He believes that international immigration is on the whole a positive effect. While he admits that there is some increased competition with citizen unskilled workers, the injury to citizens is very low and immigration has a virtually unmitigated positive benefit in economic terms. Also Professor George Borjas (Borjas 1990) made compelling arguments for increasing immigration to the United States but at theShow MoreRelatedImmigration On The United States1302 Words   |  6 PagesImmigration Rights in the U.S. Immigration has occurred in the U.S. for for many years. Some say it’s the foundation of our country. America is the country where people leave their own country to live. People would leave due to mistreatment, hunger issues or job opportunities. America is known for starting over or accomplishing dreams, so immigrants travel over to follow those dreams. People emigrate from one country to another for a variety of complex reasons. Some are forced to move, due to conflictRead MoreThe Effects of Migration725 Words   |  3 Pagesevery day, but they’re knocking on doors that are not open.† Probably, the author is right because most of the migrants even do not know what awaits them in a new country. Before thinking about the effects of migration, people should draw a distinction between emigration and immigration. The immigration is beneficial, whereas the emigration is totally disadvantageous for a country. People from industrially backward regions do not value th eir current lifestyle and conditions, and they cannot resistRead MoreThe Positive and Negative Aspects of Job Migration943 Words   |  4 Pagesworld between April and June 2013(Immigration Statistics, April to June 2013).This essay seeks to evaluate the positive and negative impacts of labor migration. This research will begin by evaluating the economic effects of job migration it will then proceed to investigate the social effects. In the process it will be highlighted that the impacts of migration are balanced. Main body Economical effects Job migration has negative and positive impacts on economy. All countries take taxes from migrantsRead MoreReassessment of International Instruments in the Field of Migration1026 Words   |  5 Pagesnature of current migration flows with traditional institutional and legal systems of handling immigration, according to which each category of migrants received its clear and unambiguous definition. This concern has led to a reassessment of international instruments in the field of migration. Phenomenon of immigration Orderly international migration can have a positive impact on the countries of origin and host countries. Migration can also facilitate the transfer of skills and cultural enrichment. TheRead MoreThe Impact Of Immigration On The United States1577 Words   |  7 PagesBeing the only Canadian born in my family, integration and immigration were never a concern of mine. However, my older brothers and parents had to go through this entire process in the 90s. Back then it was much different than now. Integration and immigration in Canada was relatively easier than in countries such as Spain, which will be the focus of this essay. Immigration to Spain is quite new. In the 1990s, it became more common, and then over the years increased significantly. The drastic increaseRead MoreCauses and Effects of Immigration1521 Words   |  7 Pages Causes and Effects of Immigration Name : Omar Kareem ID : 20083112 Section : H Instructor: Miss. Nathalia Geha Enl 110 Outline Causes and effects of immigration Thesis: the immigration is a big social problem. People immigrate because they want to have job, to run from dangerous situation and to have better education. I_ causes of immigration A_ some people are forced to move due to a conflict or toRead MoreJd Wetherspoon976 Words   |  4 PagesUnder a staggering development of economy, many people immigrate to foreign country, such as USA, UK and Australia. Therefore, they promote development of economic of these countries, as well as bringing to negative effects. In this essay, I will discuss that how influence the economic of developed countries. For example, population of America will be twice in this century. Especially, the number of children increased sharply. So that need as twice as houses, cars, roads, prison, hospitals, schoolsRead MoreThe Effects Of Immigration On The United States Essay799 Words   |  4 Pages4. Current Situation In the past few years, a lot has been spoken and researched about immigration. The goods are moving in out of the countries more freely as globalization has taken its stand. Not only goods, but people also move about more freely than before. Effects of immigration Immigration can have some positive impacts as well as some negative ones. Both the hosts and originals are affected by it. The countries which are industrialized in Western Europe or the United states are usuallyRead MoreThe United States and Illegal Immigration Essay1086 Words   |  5 PagesIllegal immigration was an issue in the past and is a pressing problem in the present. The U.S. Government has been trying to find a resolution to this issue for years. The United States approved the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986, which allowed the American Government to punish American companies that consciously employed illegal immigrants (Nadadur 1037-1052). The United States’ Government Immigration Reform and Control Act has been unsuccessful in controlling illegal immigration. ItRead MoreThe Effects Of Immigration On The Labour Market1334 Words   |  6 PagesThe issue of immigration restrictions has been a widely discussed topic in New Zealand, where migrants account for approximately one-quarter of the total population (United Nations, 2015). Some argue that the government has the re sponsibility to protect native workers, property rights against inflation and taxpayers, thus, should restrict immigration. However, others believe that the immigration policy achieves its intended purpose and that the migrants, eventually, bring tremendous positive economic

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Is Cloning A Real Development - 1031 Words

It is in human nature to constantly learn and improve. Humans are daredevils and natural entrepreneurs in life. Testing limits, discovering things to help create new ideas and give hope to the human population, but some discoveries are out of mankind s hands. Cloning is starting to become a real development but issues such as later development issues, overpopulation and the idea of decreasing natural individuality keep it at a standstill. While Cloning is at a standstill there are things that make it an interesting research development. Cloning: the complete copy of an original piece. With all the downfalls of the new technology idea, some are blinded by the unique promises that could help the human race. With learning so much about the†¦show more content†¦There is life and saving with in the idea of cloning. Heads should not be turned just because of its unnatural creation, cloning is a an idea that is looked down upon, but so was electricity and other great inventions that have increased our knowledge of the world we know today. Cloning animals have already been a development, but each clone has had development problems. Most have a problem such as later development. Reproductive cloning is expensive and highly inefficient. â€Å"More than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring.†(â€Å"Cloning: an Issue Overview†p.2) More than 100 nuclear transfer procedures could be required to produce one viable clone. In addition to low success rates, cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders. Cloned animals that do survive tend to be much bigger at birth than their natural counterparts. â€Å"Cloned animals also experience many health complications, such as abnormally large organs, and so they often die early. For example, scientists euthanized Dolly when she was six years old (half her expected lifetime) because she suffered from progressive lung disease and severe arthritis†(Joseph Castro, p.1).Dol ly is a the first mammal ever cloned in history, with her shocking survival when she was born,

Tissue Culture Technique for Callus Induction Free Essays

string(29) " at the culture room of ABI\." Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. We will write a custom essay sample on Tissue Culture Technique for Callus Induction or any similar topic only for you Order Now 23, No. 1, 2007 * Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar – Pakistan. ** Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad – Pakistan. TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES FOR CALLUS INDUCTION IN RICE Hidayat Ullah*, Iltaf Ullah*, Sultan Akbar Jadoon* and Hamid Rashid** ABSTRACT Seeds of two rice varieties Basmati-370 and Basmati-385 were evaluated for invitro callus induction at Agricultural Biotechnology Institute in National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad during 2001-02, using M. S and N6 media supplemented with 2, 4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxi acetic acid) and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) at @ 2. 0, 2. 5 and 0. 1, 0. 5 mgl-1 respectively. Objective of our study is to know the actual procedure for seed sterilization and to provide a well-adopted technique for callus induction in these varieties by using M. S and N6 media along with different concentrations of growth hormones. Seeds were used as explant source and to avoid chance of contamination sodium hypochlorite and ethanol at the rate of 50% and 70% were used respectively. Best response toward callus induction were observed for Bas-385 on both MS and N6 media however N6 media was proved to be best. Calli obtained from Bas-385 were friable and vigorous as compare to Bas-370. Bas-370 respond moderately on MS and N6 media at various combinations of 2,4-D and BAP. Bas-370 on MS media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP @ 2. 0 and 0. 1 mgl-1 gave good performance towards callus induction. Over all results indicated that best callus were induced on MS and N6 when supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP @2. 0 and 0. 0 mgl-1 for variety Bas-385. INTRODUCTION In Pakistan rice is the second leading crop after wheat. In 2000-2001, the world annual production of rice was 598 million tones (FAO 2002). Asia is the largest producer of rice, with Bangladesh, China, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnams as the leading rice producing nations. In Pakistan rice covered an area of 2. 52 million ha, with the production of 5. 16 million tones in 1999-2000. It also play important role in our national economy. During 1999-2000 about 1. 92 million tones of rice was exported and earn about 465. 8 million US$. Rice is susceptible to a range of diseases and pests, which annually destroy about 55 percent of rice crops. The most common diseases are caused by he fungi sheath blight and rice blast, and the stalk borer is a common insect pest. Rice is composed of essential food components, therefore more than two billions people in the globe depend on rice for more than half of the proteins and calories they consume (Khan et al. 2000). Due to its increasing importance in nutrition and economy, it is now felt that new vari eties of rice, having good agronomic characters, should be evolved. Crop improvement through tissue culture techniques is easier and more often in use as compared to conventional plant breeding (Yamada, 1986). Somaclonal variations commonly ppear after tissue culture, which involve a callus stage (Larkin and Scow Croft 1981). Callus is undifferentiated mass of rapidly proliferating cells, can be obtained by culturing explants source (seed, node, bud, leaves, meristem and root tips etc) on nutrient medium containing specific growth regulators along with a standard recipe of chemicals. Rashid et al. (2000) studied that rice seeds have more potential for callogenesis as compared to node or tip. Successful callus induction from rice seed has been reported by several researchers (Gonalz 2000; Navraj et al. 1999; Marrassi 1996; Valdez et al. 1997; Xie et al. 995). But an improved method for callogenesis was reported by Rashid et al. 2000). The present study is based on tissue culture tech niques carried out in ABI laboratory for callus induction in rice varieties viz. Basmati-370 and Basmati-385. Two types of basal media M. S (Murashige and Skoog 1962) and N6 (Nitsch and Nitsch, 1969) supplemented with 2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) alone or in combination with different concentrations of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) were used for callus induction. Hidayat Ullah, et al. Tissue culture techniques for callus induction in rice†¦. 82 MATERIALS AND METHODS The research work for callus induction in rice was conducted at the tissue culture laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology Institute in National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, during 2001-02. The procedure of this research work has been divided in the following four main categories. Surface Sterilization of Rice Seeds Seeds of Basmati-370 and Basmati-385 were provided by rice programmed, Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (ABI), National Agricultural Research Center Islamabad, and it was taken as explant source for callus induction. Healthy and mature seeds were selected by hysical appearance and they were dehusked manually. Seeds were first washed with detergent and then rinsed three times with simple tap water. For surface sterilization of seeds Clorox (5. 25% sodium hypochlorite) and ethanol was applied. After the applications of Clorox and ethanol seeds were rinsed thrice with autoclaved distilled water. Finally the seeds were dried with autoclaved filter pape r, and they were shifted carefully to the culture room of Agricultural Biotechnology Institute. Basal Media Preparation M. S and N6 basal media were used for callus initiation. These media were prepared according to he ingredients (Table I). The exact amount of nutrients was dissolved in the distilled water. Two types of growth regulators 2,4-D alone or in combination with BAP was used for callus induction. 2,4-D @ 2. 0 and 2. 5 mg l-1 and BAP @ 0. 0, 0. 1, 0. 5 mg l-1 respectively was added in the media. Sucrose at the rate of 3% and agar at the rate of 0. 7% was also added in the media. PH of the media was adjusted at 5. 78-5. 80 with the help of PH-meter. M. S. and N6 media were poured into the test tubes, it was plugged properly and autoclaved at 20 lbs pressure for 15 minutes in the autoclave machine. Inoculation of Sterilized Seeds The most important step in tissue culture technique is the inoculation of seeds. This operation was performed in the laminar flow cabinet at the culture room of ABI. You read "Tissue Culture Technique for Callus Induction" in category "Essay examples" Before the operation surface sterilization of the laminar flow unit was carried by UV-light for two minutes. After that hands were disinfected with 75% ethanol to prevent chance of contamination. Dried seeds were then inoculated into test tubes under aseptic condition in laminar flow unit. To minimize chance of infection the instruments were dipped in disinfectant after every operation. Growth Chamber Inoculated cultures were incubated at 25 ±3? C under the influence of 2000-lux light intensity for 16 hours photoperiod. Callus induction of rice seeds were observed after 21- days. The data for callus induction frequency were recorded for two rice varieties on two different media with different concentrations of growth regulators. Table I Composition of MS and N6 media Macronutrients KNO3 1900 2830 NH4NO3 1650 0 CaCl2. 2H2O 440 166 MgSO4 370 90. 37 KH2PO4 170 400 (NH4)2 SO4 — 463 Micronutrients MnSO4. H2O 16. 9 3. 33 H3BO3 6. 2 1. 6 KI 0. 83 0. 80 ZnSO4. 4H2O 8. 6 — ZnSO4. 7H2O — 1. 5 NaMoO4. 2H2O 0. 5 — CuSO4. 5H2O 0. 025 — CoCl2. 6H2O 0. 025 — Iron source FeSO4. 7H2O 27. 85 27. 85 NaEDTA 37. 25 37. 25 Vitamins Myoinositol 100 — Nicotinic Acid 0. 5 0. 5 Pyridoxine HCl 0. 5 0. 5 Thiamine HCl 0. 1 1. 0 Glycine 2. 0 — Sucrose 30g 30g Agar 7g 7g RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results obtained from tissue culture techniques of Bas-370 an d Bas-385 performed in ABI laboratory and repeated three times from 10th February to Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. 23, No. 1, 2007 83 October 2001. Chance of contamination was much low when both the varieties were treated with 50% Clorox and 70% ethanol. Oono (1981) also used eeds as explants source for rice callus induction. The main objective of our study is to know the actual procedure for seed sterilization and callogenesis in these cultivars. The potential of both varieties for callus induction was observed significantly different on M. S and N6 media at different concentrations of growth regulators. It is noteworthy that N6 and M. S media, which proved to be optimum for the growth of callus, were unable to support cell growth in liquid media. Callus induced from both the varieties were different at various level of 2,4-D and BAP. Maximum callus formation (62. 5%) was recorded or Bas-385, followed by Bas-370 (55. 55%) when seeds were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D@2. 0 m gl-1 and 2mgl-1 2,4-D+0. 1mgl-1 BAP respectively (Table II and IV). Lowest callus of 41. 66 % was observed each for Bas-370 and Bas-385 when MS medium is supplemented with 2. 5 and 0. 5 mgl-1 of 2,4-D and BAP respectively. It is cleared that potential of Bas-385 towards callogenesis was higher than Bas-370. Averaged across MS media callus induction frequency was 48. 14 % for BAS-370 vs 53. 22 % for BAS-385 (Fig 2). This is equivalent to the net reduction of 5. 08 % for BAS-370. Growth regulator 2,4-D at he rate of 2mgl-1 was suggested and proved to be best for callus induction in both the varieties. Using N6 media callus induction frequency ranged from 20. 83 to 68. 05% for both the varieties. When 2,4-D@2mgl-1 was supplemented with N6 media, produced highest and good quality callus from Bas-385 (68. 05%) and minimum (20. 83%) from Bas-370 (Table III and IV). This result indicated positive correlation between 2,4-D and Bas-385 and negative for Bas-370. Average across N6 media callus induction frequency was 23. 6 % for Bas-370 vs 60. 64 % for Bas-385 (Fig. 3). This is equivalent to the net reduction of 7. 2 % for BAS- 370. Calli obtained from both the varieties were friable, granular, and yellow in color. So it was proved that N6 media is better for callus induction of rice as compared to M. S medium. Overall result of BAS-385 was best on various concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP on both, MS and N6 media. Callus form Bas-385 was healthy and more fleshy as compare to Bas-370 (Figure 1). The active division of cells was more prominent in the callus of Bas-385, that’s why it looks bulky. Secondly Bas-385 had more capacity for producing callus, especially when N6 media supplemented with 2,4- D@2mgl-1. Agronomic features of Bas-385 are also better than Bas-370 because it is developed through hybridization between Bas-370 and TN-1. Callus induction must be dependent on the genetic potentials of the variety and secondly the combination of hormones at different concentration. Callus induction is the best way to create somaclonal variations in crop plants. Variations are the basis for improvement and some time this variation is heritable. Oono (1981) cultured seed explants of rice varieties and observed variation for certain agronomic characters that are also heritable. Once cultured techniques were stablished in rice, it become possible to apply them for callus regeneration and transformation. (b) Calli obtained from Bas-385 (a) Calli Obtained form Bas-370 Hidayat Ullah, et al. Tissue culture techniques for callus induction in rice†¦. 84 Table II Percentage callus induction frequency and contamination in Bas-370 on M. S Medium Treatments Sterilizing agents Clorox time/Ethano l ti me (min) Hormone in mg L-1 # Of inoculated test tubes % Contamination % Callus induction frequency % Clorox % Ethanol 2,4-D BAP 1 50 70 20/1. 0 2. 0 0. 0 72 58. 33% 20. 83% 2 50 70 20/2. 0 2. 0 0. 1 72 73. 61% 22. 22% 50 70 20/4. 0 2. 5 0. 5 72 52. 77% 27. 77% Table III Percentage callus induction frequency and contamination in Bas-370 on N6 Medium. Treatments Sterilizing agents Clorox time/Ethano l time (min) Hormone used in mg L-1 # Of inoculated test tubes % Contami nation % Callus induction frequency % Clorox % Ethanol 2,4-D BAP % Clorox 1 50 70 20/1. 0 2. 0 0. 0 72 1 50 2 50 70 20/2. 0 2. 0 0. 1 72 2 50 3 50 70 20/4. 0 2. 5 0. 5 72 3 50 Table IV Percentage callus induction frequency and contamination in Bas-385 on M. S Medium. Treatments Sterilizing agents Clorox /Ethanol time (min) Hormone used in mg L-1 Of inoculated test tubes % Contami nation % Callus induction % Clorox % Ethanol 2,4-D BAP % Clorox 1 50 70 20/1. 0 2. 0 0. 0 72 1 50 2 50 70 20/2. 0 2. 0 0. 1 72 2 50 3 50 70 20/4. 0 2. 5 0. 5 72 3 50 Table V. Percentage callus induction frequency and contamination in Bas-385 on N6 Medium Treatments Sterilizing agents Clorox/Etha nol time (min) Hormone used in mg L-1 # Of inoculated test tubes % Contami nation % Callus induction frequency % Clorox % Ethanol 2,4-D BAP % Clorox 1 50 70 20/1. 0 2. 0 0. 0 72 1 50 2 50 70 20/2. 0 2. 0 0. 1 72 2 50 3 50 70 20/4. 0 2. 5 0. 5 72 3 50 Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2007 85 20. 83 62. 5 22. 22 55. 5 27. 77 41. 66 0 20 40 60 80 Bas-370 Bas-385 Varieties Callus induction freq (%) 2,4-DBAP@2. 00. 0 2,4-DBAP@2. 00. 1 2,4-DBAP@2. 50. 5 47. 22 68. 05 55. 55 61. 11 41. 66 52. 77 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Bas-370 Bas-385 Varieties Callus induction freq (%) 2,4-DBAP@2. 00. 0 2,4-DBAP@2. 00. 1 2,4-DBAP@2. 50. 5 Fig. 2. Callus induction frequency (%) of Bas-370 and Bas-385 on M. S media at different level of 2,4-D and BAP. Fig. 3. Callus induction frequency (%) of Bas-370 and Bas-385 on N6 media at different level of 2,4-D and BAP. Hidayat Ullah, et al. Tissue culture techniques for callus induction in rice†¦. 86 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Infections of the callus is main problem in tissue culture technique so we should adopt the following precautions. 1. We should sterilize the seeds in 50% hypochlorite solution for 20 minutes and all the apparatus like flasks, petri plates, blades and forceps etc. should be disinfectant with 70% ethanol. Media should be prepared accurately with respect to concentrations and PH of the media must be maintained properly. Exact amount of growth hormones must be added. 2. Seeds of Bas-370 on MS media with combination 2. and 0. 1mgl-1 should be used to get maximum callus, while hormonal combination 2,4-D and BAP @2. 0 and 0. 0 mg l-1 should be used for better callus induction of Bas-385 on N6 media. Bas-385 is an improved version of Bas-370 because it is developed through hybridization between Bas-370 and TN-1. That’s why it is more responsive towards callus as will as high doses of ferti lizers. Over all results indicated that Bas- 385 having more potentials and suitable for further genetic studies. REFERENCES FAO. 2002 Food Outlook Bullet. No: 1,FAO, Rome. Gonalz, M. C. 2000. Effects of different growth egulators on in vitro culture of rice cultivors. Tropicales. 21(1): 27-28. Khan, J. A. , F. F. Jamil and M. A. Gill. 2000. Screnning of rice varieties against bakanae and bacterial leaf blight. Pak. J. Phytopath. 12(1): 6-11. Larkin, P. J. and W. R. Scowcraft. 1981. Somaclonal variation a novel source of variability from cell cultures of plant improvement. Theor. Appld. Genet. 60:197-214. Marasi, M. A. , O. A. Bovo, A. Socchi and L. A. Mrongiski. 1996. Cytokining in the callus induction medium for plant regeneration of rice. Phyton Int, J. Exp. Bot. 59(1-2): 155-160. Murashige, T. and F. Skoog. 1962. Arevised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497. Navraj, K. , M. S. Gill, G. Raman, T. S. Bharaj, S. S. Gosal, N. Kaur and R. Gill. 1999. Factors enhancing somatic embryogenesis and high frequency plant regeneration in rice. Crop Improv. 26(1): 23-27. Nitsch, J. P. and C. Nitsch. 1969. Haploid plants from pollen grains. Sci. 163: 85-87. Oono, K. 1981. In vitro methods applied to rice in plant tissue culture. T. Athorpe, ed. Acad. Press, New York. pp. 273-298. Rashid, H. , A. Toriyama, K. Qurashi, Hinta and K. A. Malik. 2000. An improved method for hoot regeneration from calli of Indica rice. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 3 (12): 2229-2231. Valdez, M. , M. Monoz, J. R. Vega and A. M. Espinoza. 1997. Plant regeneration of Indica rice from mature embryo derived calli. Revistade Biologia Tropical. 44(3): 13-21. Xie, J. H. , M. W. Gao, Q. H. Cai, X. Y. Chens, Y. W. Shen and Z. Q. Liang. 1995 Optimized growth regulators combination in Japonica rice. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 42(3): 245-250. Yamada, Y. , T. Q. Yang and D. T. Tang. 1986. Plant regeneration from protoplast derived callus of rice (Oryza sativa L. ). Plant Cell Reports. 4: 85-88 How to cite Tissue Culture Technique for Callus Induction, Essay examples

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The planets Essay Example For Students

The planets Essay The Planets and the Solar System Planets 2 A planet is a celestial body that revolves around a central star and does not shine by its own light (Grolier, 1992). The only planetary system that is known to man is our solar system. It is made up of nine planets which range in size and make-up. The nine major planets in our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. There are also many other minor planets which are also in our solar system, but they are unimportant compared to the nine major planets. In this paper I will discuss the planets and how they are each unique. Mercury which is the planet that is closest to the sun is the first planet I will discuss. We will write a custom essay on The planets specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Mercury is the smallest of the inner planets. It is speculated that the heat from the sun made it impossible for the gases present to become part of the planetary formation. The surface of Mercury is extremely hot. It is approximately 470 degrees celsius on the surface and is thought to be even hotter at the two hot spots. These hot spots are on opposite ends of the equator. It is the heat of the surface that makes it impossible for Mercury to have any type of atmosphere. Mercury orbits the sun once every 88 days and has a true rotation period of 58.6 days. It is the closest planet to the sun and therefore orbits faster than any other planet (Thompson/Turk, 542, 1993). It is said that Mercury rotates three times for every two trips around the sun, so that during Planets 3 every alternate perihelon passage the same face points directly at the sun. Geologically, the most remarkable features of Mercury are compressional cliffs or faults, just the sort of wrinkles that might form in the crust if the interior of the planet shrank slightly (Morrison, 74, 1993). It is speculated that it was the solidification of Mercurys metallic core that caused this global shrinkage. Mercury is also . . . enriched in metal or depleted of rock (Morrison, 74, 1993). It is also believed that some of the inner core of Mercury is still in a fluid state. Scientists also believe that Mercurys surface is made partially of silicate rock. The best way to describe Mercury is, . . . small, heavily cratered and airless (Morrison, 71, 1993). Venus is the second closest planet to the sun and is said to . . . most closely resemble Earth in size, density, and distance from the sun (Thompson/Turk, 542, 1993). Venus is known to most scientists as the sister planet to the Earth. It is called this because it closely resembles the Earths mass, density and diameter. The only thing different is that Venus is shrouded in thick clouds that completely hide the surface of the planet (Grolier, 1992). The surface temperature is also much warmer than that of Earth. Venus completes one revolution around the sun in 224.7 days. This makes the Venusian day equal to 117 earth days. It is thought that this slow rotation may be the reason why Venus has no magnetic field. Planets 4 The atmosphere of Venus made up of 98% carbon dioxide and 2% Nitrogen. This atmosphere also has the presence of helium, neon and argon. This is yet another thing which makes Venus different from Earth. The surface of Venus is quite a bit like that of the Earth. The surface has volcanoes and smooth plains. Much of the volcanic activity on Venus takes the form of Basaltic eruptions that inundate large ares, much as the mare volcanism flooded the impacted basins on the near side of the moon (Morrison, 93, 1993). .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .postImageUrl , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:hover , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:visited , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:active { border:0!important; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:active , .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647 .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc35bfd53cf63ab1ae174bdce6d415647:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Minds Are Open Only When Hearts Are Open Essay Paper One thing that differs from Earth is that there is no water liquid on the Venusian surface. Some of the scientific data that follows was taken out of Cattermoles book. The mean distance from the sun is 108.20 Km. The equatorial diameter is 12,012 Km and the equatorial rotation is 243 days. Finally the mass of Venus is 4.87*10^24 (Cattermole, 63, 1993). Venus, although different than Earth, is still our sister planet. Mars is the fourth furthest away from the sun and is recognized by its reddish color. Mars is also very much like the Earth. More than any other planet in the solar system, Mars has characteristics that make it an Earth-like world (Grolier, 1992). One thing that is very similar to Earth is the rotation period. Mars rotation period is only thirty seven minutes longer than the Earths. This would explain why Mars has significant seasonal changes just as Earth does. It is believed that the Planets 5 difference between winter and summer on Mars is even greater than on Earth. Mars is extremely hard to understand due to the effect of blurring that is caused by the two atmospheres of Mars. Scientists do know, however, that Mars is relatively small and that changes take place in the surface features when the seasons change. It is also known that dust storms are prevalent and leaves the surface of Mars covered by a red haze. Mars has a very thin atmosphere which is composed of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, water vapor and oxygen. Mars also has no magnetic field. Because the atmosphere of mars is so thin, wind velocities up to several hundred Km per hour are required to raise the dust particles during a dust storm, and these fast- moving particles erode structures with a sand-blasting effect (Grolier, 1992). Therefore, the surface is basically plain-like and covered with large craters. There are also some areas where the rock is jumbled. The poles of Mars are iced over and the temperature is about 160 170 degrees K. Mars also has its share of volcanoes. Most of these volcanoes are shield volcanoes. The surface is littered with winding channels that resemble river channels that have dried up over time. Scientists believe that water once existed and caused the formation of these channels. It is said that, Mars remains the best candidate for life in the solar system outside of the Earth, and that is what makes Mars so interesting to scientists. Jupiter is the fifth planet and is the most massive of all Planets 6 the planets in this solar system. Its mass represents more than two-thirds of the total mass of all the planets, or 318 times the mass of the Earth. Jupiters density is quite low at 1. 3 g/cubic cm. The atmosphere of Jupiter contains water, ammonia, methane and carbon. It is thought by scientists that there are three cloud layers. The wind activity on Jupiter is quite fierce and moves in jet streams parallel to the equator. The weather on Jupiter is still very hard for scientists to understand. There is not enough information to truly understand how the weather is on this planet. Jupiter is most known by the normal citizen by the rings it has. These rings are very diffuse. The ring particles must generally be about as big as the wavelength of light, that is, only a few microns (Grolier, 1992). That is why these rings are faint or diffuse. The rings are what Jupiter is known for. Saturn is a planet which is also known for its rings and when viewed has a yellow or grayish color. .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .postImageUrl , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:hover , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:visited , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:active { border:0!important; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:active , .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uef56a36f56fd1f5ccb83ba333cca757b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Times Have Changed Essay The color is from the gaseous atmosphere and the dust particles in that atmosphere. The atmosphere is mostly a clear hydrogen-helium atmosphere. There are also traces of methane, phosphine, ethane, and acetylene. This atmosphere is much different than that of the Earths. Saturn orbits the sun with a period of 29.4577 tropical years. It is 1.427 billion Km away from the sun and is therefore a cold planet. It has an equatorial diameter of 120,660 Km which Planets 7 makes it the second largest planet in our solar system. The next planet is Uranus. The main problem scientists have with Uranus is that, the lack of visible surface features means that it is difficult to measure the rotation period of Uranus (Hunt/Moore, 388, 1983). Uranus has an equatorial diameter of 51,000 Km which is almost four times as much as Earth. The atmosphere is mostly methane gas and therefore the planet has a red tint or a blueish green color. Uranus also has rings but unlike Saturn these rings have almost no small particles. Scientists are not as concerned with this planet. Neptune is the last of the gaseous planets in our solar system. Its atmosphere is much like Uranuss because it is mostly helium and hydrogen. It also contains methane. Neptune has a diameter of 49,500 Km and a mass 17.22 times that of the Earth. It has an average density of 1.67 /cm^3 (Grolier, 1992). Neptune also has rings like its other gaseous partners, but they are very faint. Not a great deal is known about Neptune. It is widely studied by scientists and that makes it an important planet. The final planet, which is also the smallest, and the furthest away from the sun is Pluto. This planet is very hard to see therefore not a lot is known about its physical characteristics. Scientists do know that it has a thin methane atmosphere. Little is known about this planet because it is so far away from the Earth and the sun. Scientists are always learning new things and more data will arise in the future. Planets 8 As one can see the planets of most importance are the ones closest to the sun and Earth. Little is known about the far off planets therefore it is hard to give them full recognition. Much is known about Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The other three planets are not as well known as these six are. Whether more planetary systems exist doesnt really matter. There are still plenty of things we dont understand about our own solar system. Scientists will have their work cut out for them in the future. Each and every planet has distinct differences and that helps show us how truly great God is. The planets will never fully be understood and will always be a great topic of discussion. Bibliography:Planets 9 Works Sited Cattermole, P. (1995). Earth and Other Planets. New York: Oxford University Press. Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc. (1992). Hunt, G. Moore, P. (1983). Atlas of the Solar System. Chicago: Rand Mc Nally Company. Morrison, D. (1993). Exploring Planetary Worlds. New York: Scientific American Library. Thompson, G. Turk, J. (1993). Earth Science and the Environment. New York: Saunders College Publishing Harcourt Brace College Publishers.